Almost all programs was written in machine language or assembly language before 1954 (Backus 1978).
Unfortunately, Backus and his team did not know the work of Konrad Zuse. The programming language "Plankalkül" invented by Zuse, and completed in 1945, was an elegant and advanced programming language more than fifteen years ahead of its time (Backus 1978).
FORTRAN introduced expressions (http://www.cs.bris.ac.uk/Teaching/Resources/COMS11200/notes/notes9.html).
|Title||The History of FORTRAN I, II, and III.|
|Place||San Jose, California|
|Publisher||IBM Research Laboratory|
|Retrieved||April 13, 2006|